What Religion is Bashkortostan?

Bashkortostan, also known as Bashkiria, is a federal subject of Russia located in the heart of Eurasia. Its unique region has a rich cultural and religious history, defined by its diverse population and longstanding traditions.

As the homeland of the Bashkirs, an indigenous Turkic people, Bashkortostan is home to various spiritual practices that reflect the broader region’s history and the influences of neighboring peoples.

In this blog post, we will delve into the diverse religious landscape of Bashkortostan, examining the significant faiths, their historical roots, and the ways they continue to shape the region’s identity today.

Islam: The Dominant Faith in Bashkortostan

Islam is the predominant religion in Bashkortostan, with most of the population identifying as Muslim. The history of Islam in the region can be traced back to the 10th century, when the religion was introduced to the area by Arab and Persian traders and missionaries.

The conversion to Islam among the Bashkirs was gradual, with the majority embracing the faith by the 14th century.

The broader Turkic and Tatar cultures have influenced the Islamic traditions in Bashkortostan, and many of the mosques and religious institutions in the region reflect this connection.

The practice of Islam in Bashkortostan is predominantly Sunni, adhering to the Hanafi school of jurisprudence. However, elements of folk religion and Sufism can also be found, reflecting the unique cultural context of the region.

Russian Orthodoxy: A Significant Minority

Though Islam is the dominant faith in Bashkortostan, Russian Orthodoxy also has a significant presence in the region. This is mainly due to the historical Russian influence in the area, which began with the incorporation of Bashkortostan into the Russian Empire in the 16th century.

With the arrival of Russian settlers and the subsequent promotion of Russian Orthodoxy, the religion began to gain a foothold in the region.

Today, there are numerous Russian Orthodox churches and monasteries in Bashkortostan, and the faith represents the largest religious minority in the area.

Many ethnic Russians living in Bashkortostan identify as Orthodox Christians, and the religion plays an important role in the cultural and spiritual life of the region.

Tengrism and Shamanism: Indigenous Beliefs and Practices

Before the arrival of Islam and Russian Orthodoxy, the indigenous Bashkir people practiced a variety of animistic and shamanistic beliefs, often referred to collectively as Tengrism.

This belief system centered on worshiping Tengri, the sky god, and other spirits associated with the natural world. Although many Bashkirs converted to Islam over time, elements of Tengrism and shamanism continue to be practiced in the region, often in tandem with Islamic beliefs.

These indigenous religious practices have experienced a resurgence in recent years, as a growing number of Bashkirs seek to reconnect with their ancestral traditions.

This has led to establishment of cultural centers and organizations dedicated to preserving and promoting Bashkir shamanistic practices and Tengrism.

Religious Tolerance and Coexistence in Bashkortostan

One of the defining features of Bashkortostan’s religious landscape is the relatively high degree of tolerance and coexistence among different faiths. This is partly due to the region’s history of religious pluralism and the blending of various cultural influences over time.

Additionally, the government of Bashkortostan has promoted policies that encourage interfaith dialogue and the peaceful coexistence of different.

Judaism and Other Religious Minorities

Though smaller in number, several other religious communities can be found in Bashkortostan. The Jewish community, for example, has a long history in the region dating back to the 19th century when Jews from the Pale of Settlement began to settle in the area.

There are several synagogues and Jewish cultural centers in Bashkortostan, primarily in the capital city, Ufa.

Additionally, various Protestant denominations, such as Baptists and Seventh-day Adventists, have established a presence in the region. These communities, while small, contribute to the diverse tapestry of religious life in Bashkortostan.

Festivals and Celebrations

Religious festivals and celebrations play an important role in the people’s lives in Bashkortostan. Major Islamic holidays, such as Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha, the Feast of the Sacrifice, are observed by Muslims throughout the region. These celebrations often involve communal prayers, feasting, and acts of charity.

On the other hand, Russian Orthodox Christians observe religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter, which are celebrated with church services, family gatherings, and festive meals.

Traditional Bashkir shamanistic practices also involve various rituals and ceremonies that coincide with seasonal changes, agricultural cycles, and other significant events.

The Role of Religion in Bashkortostan’s Identity

Religion plays a vital role in shaping the identity of the people of Bashkortostan. The region’s diverse religious landscape is a testament to its complex history and cultural heritage.

For the Bashkirs, the coexistence of Islam, Tengrism, and shamanism reflects their unique spiritual traditions and the influences of neighboring Turkic and Tatar peoples.

Meanwhile, Russian Orthodoxy serves as an important link to the region’s Russian heritage and the broader Russian cultural sphere. The peaceful coexistence of various religious communities in Bashkortostan is a source of pride for its inhabitants. It has fostered a climate of tolerance and mutual respect.


The religious landscape of Bashkortostan is a fascinating reflection of the region’s rich history, diverse population, and complex cultural dynamics. From the predominant faith of Islam to the significant presence of Russian Orthodoxy and the resurgence of indigenous shamanistic practices, Bashkortostan’s religious tapestry is a testament to the resilience and adaptability of its people.

As we move into the future, it will be interesting to see how these religious traditions continue to evolve and shape the region’s identity in an increasingly globalized world.